Wednesday, 27 April 2016


PASSION FRUITS BUSINESS 

These sweet raw edible fruits and mostly preferred in homestead juice making more over passion juice can be mixed with other fruits juice such as mango, avocado, pineapple to increase flavour and test and also used in food industries to make drinks and vinegar so their are highly needed in such ways. for farmers consideration its worth full to cultivate passion as its price goes high due to increase in demand, by considering farm gate price one basket(tenga) is TZS 25,000/= thereby for one acre farm farmer can get approximately TZS 2,000,000/=(2 million )  by selling these passion fruits
also they are advantageous because they can be intercroped with shallow rooted crops and vegetables as it provide shading and hence effective land use approach. 


ORIGIN, WORLD DISTRIBUTION & IMPORTANCE

The edible commercial species of Passion fruit originated on the edges of South American rain forests in the Amazon region of Brazil and possibly in Paraguay and North Argentina. The purple passion fruit (passiflora edulis), is adapted to the coolest subtropics or to high altitudes in the tropics, while the golden passion fruit (p.edulis f. flavicarpa) is more suited to tropical lowland conditions. 

Passion fruit became naturalized in most of the tropical and subtropical world covering South Africa, Hawaii, California and Florida by the end of the nineteenth century. Kenya, Sri Lanka and Fiji were naturalized with the crop by about the middle of the 20th century. In Europe, in the 17th century it was grown as an ornamental plant under glass house conditions for it's attractive flowers.

Nutrient Content of the Fruit
Nutrient composition of the two major commercial species of passion fruit are presented in Table 1. passion fruit is fair to good source of pro-vitamin A, ascorbic acid, riboflavin and niacin with also a high mineral content. 

Apart from it's unique flavour (brix value range of 12-20) the comparative high acid content of the juice (2.4-%) is it's most discouraging characteristic in processing and development of value added products.

Nutrient and it's approximate composition in passion fruit caltivars per 100g edible portion.

NUTRIENT P.edulis P.edulis f.flavicarpa
Moisture % 85.6 84.9
Protein (g) 0.4 0.7
Fat (g) 0.1 0.2
Carbohydrate (g)  13.6 13.1
Ash (g)  0.3 0.5
Ca (mg) 3.6 3.8
P (mg) 12.5 24.6
Fe (mg) 0.2 0.4
Vitamin A (iu) 717 2410
Thiamin (mg) trace trace
Riboflavin (mg) 0.1  0.1
Niacin (mg) 1.5  2.2
Ascorbic acid (mg) 30 20

VARIETIES
Below are different passion fruits grown in Tanzania and their requirement to grow.
  • SWEET PASSION (Passiflora ligularis)  
Regarded as the best tasting passion fruit in the world. The hard-shelled orange-yellow fruit is of excellent quality and has a white aromatic pulp. The vine is easily recognized by its heart shaped leaves. The fruit is between 6.5 and 8 cm long and between 5.1 and 7 cm in diameter. The vines grow on many soil types but light to heavy sandy loams with a pH of 6.5 to 7.5 are the most suitable. Excellent drainage is absolutely necessary. Also, the soil should be rich in organic matter and low in salts. If the soil is too acid, lime must be applied. Because the vines are shallow-rooted, they will benefit from a thick layer of organic mulch.


  • YELLOW PASSION (Passiflora flavicarp)
The yellow passion fruit has somewhat less ascorbic acid than the purple but is richer in total acid (mainly citric) and in carotene     content. It is an excellent source of niacin and a good source of riboflavin. The yellow passion fruit is tropical or near-tropical. It is grown from near sea-level up to an elevation of 2,000 ft (600 m).


  • PURPLE PASSION (Passsiflora edulis) 
Its  one of the most common passion fruit grown by farmers in Tanzania,  The purple passion fruit is subtropical. It grows and produces well between altitudes of 1,900 to 2,000ft. The fruit is a vigorous, climbing vine that clings by tendrils to almost any support. It can grow 15 to 20 ft. per year once established and must have strong support. It is generally short-lived (5 to 7 years).
         A well-distributed rainfall of 1000 mm to 2,000 mm per year is suitable for passion fruit production. Excess rainfall causes poor fruit set and encourages diseases.


Fertilization:


Passion fruit vines are vigorous growers and require regular fertilizing. A good choice is 10-5-20 NPK applied at the rate of 3 pounds per plant 4 times a year. Too much nitrogen results in vigorous foliage growth at the expense of flowering. Passion fruit vines should always be watched for deficiencies, particularly in potassium and calcium, and of less importance, magnesium. Spraying with foliar feed and trace elements every three months is also recommended. Plants that have been damaged by frost should receive a generous fertilizing after the weather has warmed.
Soil:
Passion fruit vines are grown on many soil types but light to heavy sandy loams, of medium texture are most suitable, and pH should be from 6.5 to 7.5. If the soil is too acid, lime must be applied. Good drainage is essential to minimize the incidence of collar rot.


Planting:

It is highly recommended to grow purple Passion Fruit grafted on Yellow Passion rootstocks. Propagation is by seed, stem cutting, or grafted propagules. Planting holes of 45 cm × 45 cm × 45 cm should be dug well before planting.

Transplanting of grafted plants is done at the beginning of the rainy season preferably early in the morning or late in the afternoon unless irrigation is available. Ensure that the roots are not flooded and prune long roots back. In the drier areas watering, mulching, and in some cases, shading of young plants is required immediately after transplanting.
Spacing:
The recommended spacing is 2 m between rows and 3 m within rows.
Propagation:
Passion fruit vines are usually grown from seeds. With the yellow form seedling variation provides cross-pollination and helps overcome the problem of self-sterility. Seed planted soon after removal from the fruit will germinate in 10 to 20 days. Cleaned and stored seeds have a lower and slower rate of germination. Seeds should be planted 1/2 to 1 inch deep in beds, and seedlings may be transplanted when 10 inches high. If taller (up to 3 feet), the tops should be cut back and the plants heavily watered.
Training
Young vines are trained to grow along the wire support of the trellises. Thin rope or string tied from the base of the vine to the wire could be utilized for this purpose. All lateral branches arising from the main stem are nipped off up to wire level. Two side branches arising from the main stem are bent around the top wire and allowed to grow along the in opposite directions. Lateral branches are now allowed to develop from these two side branches. Lateral branches so developed will hang down freely due to the foliage, flowers and fruits as they are formed. The growing tips of the side branches growing along the wire are broken if as they reach the next vine in the row.




Pruning:

Pruning is necessary to keep the vines within bounds, to make harvest easier and to keep the plants productive by maintaining vigorous growth. In warm winter climates prune immediately after harvest. In areas with cool winters prune in early spring. As a a general rule remove all weak growth and cut back vigorous growth by at least one third. In very hot climates allow a thick canopy of foliage to grow around the fruit to prevent sunburn.
Weeding
Except for a space of about 60-90cm radius around the base of each vine which has to be kept clean weeded at all times, the rest of the plantation maybe allowed to have an undergrowth of grass. Most of the passion fruit can infect legume spp and it's therefore not advisable to have cover crops of legumes. Furthermore, 'Watapalu' and "Podisinghomaram' are hosts of aphid vectors which are responsible for passion fruit mottle and ringspot virus transmission. Therefore these weeds should be eliminated. Use of weedicides is not recommended as passion fruit vines are extremely susceptible to them.


Harvesting

Fruits drop to the ground when fully mature and collected every second day. At this stage, the fruits are shriveled-the best condition for juice processing.
For the fresh fruit market, the fruits are harvested when the whole of the fruit is purple just before shriveling and drying sets in.
Reactions:

4 comments:

Post a Comment




YouTube

Jishindie Zawadi nono kwa kujibu swali hili "Makala Mpya kwenye ukurasa wetu wa Facebook inahusu "

GREENAGRICULTURE APP

GREENAGRICULTURE APP
GREENAGRIC APP

Business

AGRICULTURE LAND

...

LIKE US ON FACEBOOK

visitors

Mostly Visited